A nerve surgery or a neurosurgery is one that treats ailments of the nerves in the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves and the cerebro-vascular system. Historical evidence show neurosurgery dating back to thousands of years, back when it was done through incisions into the skull. What we now know or see as neurosurgery that works with the usage of tools like chisels, dissectors, distractors, forcepts, impactors, probes, suction tubes, power tools, and robot arms is a result of the development of the field in the last one hundred years.
Paul Berger, a French physician had found, from remains excavated underneath a Bronze Age heart openings on skulls that seemed to have been made by means trephination, which is the cutting, drilling or scraping the layers of the bone. These were dated to be more than five thousand years old. It was also found out that those holes had showed signs of healing which meant that the person must have had survived the surgery. These methods were also practiced in Africa; there are papyrus records that prove it. To name one prominent researcher from the early middle ages would be Abulkassim Al
Zahrawi, whose works are taught in European medical schools even today. Looking at skull during operation became possible after the invention of X-ray in 1896. That field of medical study which works with the any kind of disease or disorders damaging or deteriorating the nerves of the brain and spinal cord is called neuropathology.
Divisions in nerve surgery
By general neurosurgery it means most neurosurgical conditions such as neuro-trauma and other neural occurrences like an intracranial hemorrhage.
Some of the divisions of nerve related surgeries are as follows:
- Endo-vascular neuro-surgery: medical subspecialty of neurosurgery which specializes in image-based technologies used in diagnosis and treatment of problems or ailments of the head, neck, and spinal column.
- Stereotactic Neurosurgery: This kind of nerve surgery works on the corpus callosum, involving partial or total severance of it. This is done to lessen seizures and attack at the base of the seizures. This also counts in a hemispherectomy which is a partial or complete removal of one of the lobes of the brain. This is done in cases of gunshot wounds or stab injuries to the brain.
- Oncological Neurosurgery: Also called Neural Oncology, this type of surgery treats malignant and non-malignant neural cancers that occurs in the central and the peripheral nervous system.
- Pediatric Surgery: Involves those surgeries that are performed for the treatment of strokes, seizures, delirium, dementia and other forms of neurocognitive disorders.