A surgery is takes place in a specialized room called the operation theater. Nowadays, almost all hospitals are equipped with at least one such room. The environment in which a surgery takes place must be sterilized and any kind of contamination must be avoided. This is the reason why surgical instruments must are always sterilized and even the participants in the operation are dressed in specialized attire. These principles are those of the asceptic technique.
Certain numbers of tests are conducted prior to the surgery to minimize or erase the risk of any complications arising out of surgery. For instance if it is found out that the surgery can cause immense blood loss, blood transfusion is arranged for; if it is a gastro-intestinal surgery, the patient is given a bowel-prep solution. Some surgeries call for a pre-op X-ray to avoid an kind of unknown abnormality that might negatively affect the surgical procedure.
When taken to the operation theater, the patient is changed into sterile clothing, antiseptics are applied in the concerned area and if there is hair in that region it is done away with. Anesthesia is given to the patient. There are two forms of anesthesia : local and regular. In the former, the sensation in the concerned area deadened for the procedure whereas in the latter the patient is driven unconscious and rendered paralyzed for the surgery.
The surgical procedure itself is vast employing a ton of methodologies like incision, which is the initial step, ligation, grafts, resection, transplant, athrodesis, etc. During the post-op period, the patient is kept in check for signs of side-effects or complications that are might arise. Infections are the most likely occurrences. Sometimes abscesses can also occur if surgical drains are left for long in the affected area. Sometimes movements can also exert pressure on the stitches and lead to excess blood loss, which must be catered to.